More Russian sports federations could be banned if the latest allegations of state-aided doping are proven, Olympic president Thomas Bach says.
Whistleblower Vitaly Stepanov has claimed Russian intelligence agents posed as anti-doping staff to cover up cheating at the 2014 Sochi Olympics.
If true, it would represent an "unimaginable level of criminality", Bach said.
Russian athletics is banned from global competition over separate claims.
International Olympic Committee (IOC) president Bach said the latest allegations by former Russian anti-doping agency worker Stepanov would be a "shocking new dimension in doping" if proven.
He said the IOC would apply a "zero tolerance policy not only with regard to individual athletes, but to all their entourage within its reach".
"This action could range from lifelong Olympic bans for any implicated person, to tough financial sanctions, to acceptance of suspension or exclusion of entire national federations like the already existing one for the Russian Athletics by the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF)," the German said.
The IOC has called for an investigation into the Sochi allegations, while Russia's sports ministry has said it was "certain about transparency of doping control" at the Winter Games.
Russia won 33 medals at their home Games, including 13 golds.
The country's athletes are due to find out next month if they will be allowed to compete at August's Rio Olympics.
Bach's comments came the day after the IOC announced it had discovered 31 positive tests following the re-testing of 454 samples collected at the 2008 Beijing Olympics.